1 edition of Physical evaluation of cloud seeding effects found in the catalog.
Physical evaluation of cloud seeding effects
|Statement||by P.B. Mac Cready ... [et al.].|
|Contributions||MacCready, P. B., Meteorology Research, inc.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||1 v. (various pagings) :|
Rigorous attention to evaluation of both operational and research programs is needed to help develop more effective procedures and to improve understanding of the effects of cloud seeding. Research and operational programs should be designed in a way that will allow their physical and statistical evaluation. Evaluating Winter Orographic Cloud Seeding: Design of the Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Project (WWMPP) includes both a statistical and physical evaluation. The physical effects of glaciogenic seeding of winter oro- further elucidate the physical effects of seeding. Numer-ical modeling capabilities of simulated seeding effects.
In the earlier of these major projects, evaluation of results had been based largely upon comparisons of seeded and nonseeded precipitation experimental units stratified by various sounding-derived parameters in an attempt to amplify the physical significance of the seeding effects within various sub-types of orographic clouds. Cloud seeding is a form of weather modification. The goal of this work is to change the amount of precipitation that falls from the sky or to alter the type that would reach the ground. It occurs when substances are dispersed into the air that serve as ice nuclei or condensation. Most efforts at cloud seeding try to increase the levels of precipitation that fall, providing more rain or snow.
“The main cloud seeding methods provide centers for drops and ice crystals to form on,” Bruintjes says. “If these particles already exist in optimal size and concentration in some regions of the world, cloud seeding would not have an impact.” The location of the clouds is also highly significant. Research and documentation of anthropogenic effects on precipitation processes strengthen the physical basis for deliberate attempts to alter clouds (i.e., weather modification via cloud seeding) with the goal of enhancing precipitation or mitigating severe weather.
A Different Tune Reading 1-2
Law of domestic violence
Growth of firms in Indian manufacturing industry
U.S. stationary compressors market.
Conflict in Iraq
Nehrus foreign policy X-rayed.
Field sports in India, 1800-1947
Soil survey of Will County, Illinois
Michael Foremans Treasure Island
Guidelines for the prevention and management of violence
EVALUATION OF SEEDING EFFECTS Assessment of the seeding effects made use of target-control regressions derived from official historical rainfall records.
From monthly data for stations within the target and outside to the west and south, a year base period before seeding from. These provided reliable observations for effect evaluation of cloud seeding experiments (Chu et al., ; Pokharel & Geerts, ). So far, these multisource data and their assimilation have been gradually applied in numerical models, which have efficiently improved the performance of by: 1.
However, when Battan () first published his book inhe came to the conclusion that despite the evidence that cloud seeding leads to the enhancement of precipitation on the ground, more scientific knowledge was needed to better understand the physical mechanisms involved.
He cited a report published in by the World Meteorological. A Winter Season Physical Evaluation of the Effects of Cloud Seeding in the Colorado Mountains William R.
Cotton, Ray McAnelly, and Gustavo Carrió Colorado State University Dept. of Atmospheric Science Fort Collins, Colorado. The seeding effects of both ground-based and airborne seeding as well as the impacts of model physics, seeding rates, location, timing, and cloud properties on seeding effects.
Evaluation of Hygroscopic Cloud Seeding Flares. Roelof T. physical evidence that supported the physical. the seeding effect to larger parts of the cloud. This paper is concerned with persistence effects of cloud seeding for precipitation enhancement.
Effects may last for hours or days. Persistence of cloud seeding effects means that this environmental technology may affect the microphysical structure of clouds and the development of precipitation for a significant amount of time after the seeding has been completed. According to Rottner.
A Winter Season Physical Evaluation of the Effects of Cloud Seeding in the Colorado Mountains William R. Cotton, Ray McAnelly, and Gustavo Carrió Colorado State University Dept. of Atmospheric Science Fort Collins, Colorado In this research we apply the CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to simulate cloud seeding operations.
STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF RESULTS PREDICTED SEEDNG EFFECT, AH (km) Observed versus predicted effect of seeding upon cloud height in a iandomized experiment over the Caribbean Sea in 1%5.
Heavy dashed line represents perfect predictability for seeded clouds, while dashed line represents perfect predictabilityfor control clouds, that is, zero. Cloud seeding is happening everywhere, and it could be causing serious health problems in ways you aren’t aware of.
Cloud seeding is a process where chemicals are dispersed into the air to change how clouds produce moisture. The cloud seeding process is conducted by the government to modify the weather in any given area.
Cloud seeding has been actively carried out across the globe in the past several decades due to the uneven spatial-temporal distribution of precipitation.
The catalytic effects of artificial precipitation enhancement experiments and operations caused widely academic debates in atmospheric physics. Both atmospheric physicists and statisticians have made much effort for exploratory and. effective procedures and to improve understanding of the effects of cloud seeding.
Research and operational programs should be designed in a way that will allow their physical and statistical evaluation.
Any statistical assessment must be accompanied by physical evaluation to confirm that the statistical results can be. This chapter describes the history of cloud seeding, the mechanism of natural precipitation, fundamental cloud seeding techniques, and statistical and physical evaluation of cloud seeding effects.
It also describes remarkable features of observed signals induced by cloud seeding, based on results from several liquid carbon dioxide seeding. The American Meteorological Society (AMS) Statement on Planned Weather Modification Through Cloud Seeding emphasizes the need for a comprehensive approach to cloud-seeding experiments that includes both a statistical and physical evaluation.
The physical effects of glaciogenic seeding of winter orographic clouds have been fairly well documented. Moreover, the lidar has detected changes in cloud layer structure and ice-water balance brought about by aerial seeding operations which are quite distinct from the background conditions, indicating that lidar observations may also find application as part of a physical evaluation method of seeding effects.
the pooling of the estimates of the seeding effects for the Kings River, Kern River, and San Joaquin River Basin operational cloud seeding programs indicated that the common effect of seeding on the three River Basins is +% with 90% conﬁdence that the true effect of seeding is somewhere between +% and +%.
The evaluations of. Cloud seeding is a type of weather modification that aims to change the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, which alter the microphysical processes within the usual intent is to increase precipitation (rain or snow), but hail and fog suppression are also widely practised in.
cloud seeding (Kerr, ; Mather et al., ; Silverman, ). Encouraged by some recent successes (Tessendorf et al.,), we have attempted to investigate the effec-tiveness of cloud seeding by exploring different evaluation methods.
Presented here is a study assessing the cloud seeding effect. It is an understatement to say that people are confused about cloud seeding. While it has been called "the crime of the century" and outlawed in Pennsylvania, the governments of the dry, western part of the United States continue to spend tax revenues on cloud seeding to increase water supplies.
During the past five years, I have talked with officials responsible for decisions regarding cloud. Advances in the Evaluation of Cloud Seeding: Statistical Evidence for the Enhancement of Precipitation Xianghua Wu1, Ni Yan1, Huaying Yu2, Shengjie Niu3, Fangxiu Meng1, Weiqi Liu1, and Haiyan Sun4 1School of Mathematics and Statistics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China, 2School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and.
Part of the Springer Series in Statistics book series (SSS) Abstract Randomized silver-iodide seeding of summer convective clouds was carried out over the Santa Catalina Mountains in southern Arizona in 2 programs: the first from throughand the second inand Geoengineering by cloud seeding: influence on sea ice and climate system.
Philip J Rasch 1, John Latham 2,3 and Chih-Chieh (Jack) Chen 2. Published 18 December • IOP Publishing Ltd Environmental Research Letters, Volume 4, Number 4 Focus on Climate Engineering: Intentional Intervention in the Climate System.Glaciogenic cloud seeding with silver iodide (AgI) has been used to enhance precipitation for over 60 years.
Assessments of AgI impact and dispersion are often quantified using atmospheric processes models with impact assessed by comparing models with and without inclusion of cloud seeding modules. However, there is inherent uncertainty in these aerosol models and physical validation of .